Lead by TNO, The Netherlands (case studies 1, 2, 3)
Demineralization is often a necessary water treatment step to close the water loop in the (chemical) industry. This were reflected in several demonstration cases.
Quite some technologies (e.g. electrodialysis, precipitation or capacitive deionisation) are available for the selective removal of salts from aqueous streams. In general, these technologies are applied in high value applications where salts are either the product or limit further purification of the final product. These technologies, however, are not yet used in low value applications like waste water treatment.
The objectives were:
This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 280756.